During Witmer Stone’s September 8–18, 1921 trip to Cape May, fall migration was in full swing and birds were on the move. Stone had “first of the fall” appearances of some winter residents (Brown Creeper, Savannah Sparrow) and saw the last of some departing summer residents or fall migrants, including Short-billed Dowitcher, Piping Plover, Purple Martin, Least Flycatcher, Ovenbird, American Redstart, Black-and-white Warbler, Northern Waterthrush, Swainson’s Thrush, and Grasshopper and Henslow’s sparrows. Hard as it is to believe today, the latter species bred in the Cape May area in Stone’s time; he mentions finding young ones just off the nest in the fields by Race Track Pond.
Tree Swallows were swarming at Cape May, with the birds “pouring over the country in all directions, as if belching forth from some enclosure of which the door had been suddenly opened.”
Tree Swallows still swarm in some numbers in autumn today at Cape May, but another bird much reduced since Stone’s time is the Sora. The night before Stone’s arrival, a massive migratory movement of Soras resulted in so many striking the telegraph wires that farmers told him dead Soras were found “every few yards” along the road from Erma to Cape May. (Stone experienced a similar flight on the 16th.) As sad as that is to contemplate, it’s even sadder that today’s Sora numbers are so much lower that a “heavy” flight wouldn’t produce a catastrophe of anywhere near that magnitude.
Irruptive Red-breasted Nuthatches were having a “flight year” in 1921, and the pine woods by Lake Lily (now mostly built over) were thick with them. Stone’s excellent description in BSOCM of the behavior of one bird included “Alighting on the trunk of the next tree he goes round and round head down, creeping like a mouse; now he pauses to pry off a loose scale of bark, seeking some lurking insect hiding beneath, now he stops and daintily picks off a number of gray aphids from a bunch of pine needles and then is off to other feeding grounds.” Earl Poole’s drawing in BSOCM looks like it could be the very bird Stone described:
There is a curious dearth of warbler records in BSOCM, and on this trip – at the height of the neotropical migrant migration – Stone recorded the only Bay-breasted and Cape May warblers of the fall (single birds), and two of the three Magnolia Warbler sightings. All three species – particularly the Magnolia – are commonly found in fall migration at Cape May Point today and must have been more common in 1921, indicating that Stone and his colleagues weren’t giving the warbler flights any real notice. The CMBO folks are giving the warblers and other migrants much closer attention today.